If your android device is connected via usb then you can use "adb logcat" to view all android log output. adb can also filter the output so you only see godot related messages. And it might be useful to redirect the output to a textfile and review the contents after the fail.
If you develop on windows then keep in mind that windows is much more forgiving when you mix up the case in file names. Godot Windows will load "Player.scn" when the file is actually named "player.scn". Android, linux and MacOS won't.
Avoid also using special chars (like umlauts or other accented characters) in your resource files. I have read that these sometimes fail to make it correctly into the apk.