Godot uses a non-system font by default, that is embedded into the Godot executable, regardless of platform. So, it should always work, if your hardware is recent enough and your drivers are up-to-date.
The reason the font is not being drawn in your Godot is likely that you're running a too old graphics card or driver. Try updating your graphics driver.
Note that old Intel graphics on Windows (the ones before Sandy Bridge) are unlikely to run Godot correctly, but they seem to work fine on Linux, judging from user feedback. This is because a newer OpenGL version is offered on Linux than on Windows for those integrated graphics.