Noticed a "windows" logo in the corner of your screenshot so I think I know what your error is (90% sure atleast ;) );
Most moden android versions uses the ext4 filesystem, where nodes (file and directories) are case sensitive. Most people running windows use FAT32 which is not case sensitive ( NTFS is though, iirc ).
What it boils down to is this - you may have a file in
If you include it as "graphics/ReallyCoolButton.pnG" in godot it would work on windows, but not on Linux, MacOS or android.
So go through all your resources and make sure the case is the EXACT same as the file. and make sure if you overwrite the file outside of godot to use the same case for the file name.
(on windows "reallyCoolButton.png" would overwite the above file but change case of the name)