Pygame is a game framework. This means while it provides some basic functionality, you must code all the systems you need (animation, physics, etc). As a game engine, Godot provides lots of built-in tools for these things, so you can get up and running faster.
Whether you can do the same things and/or do them in the same amount of time is going to depend on you. There is a learning curve, so you'll have to devote some time to learning the "Godot way". It seems you have't been using Pygame for very long so it's likely that you're not doing things in the most efficient way. On top of that, Pygame is very archaic and does not do things like GPU rendering, 3D, physics, etc. I would say you probably should go for Godot, as it'll give you a lot more options moving forward.
If you have any plans to distribute your game, you probably want to switch over to Godot. Pygame games are not at all easy (or sometimes even possible) to export to mobile, etc.