Update: I've built godot 3.X (which I thought was 3.3.3, but was in fact 3.4 beta) from source in Linux, but the situation didn't change-- the crash still occurs in the same way. I also tried running the windows binary of 3.3.3 through wine, but that also crashed, despite working fine in windows. Wine Debug wasn't able to attach to the process to obtain a stack trace. Additionally, both the windows binary running under wine and the native binary crash after displaying the following message in the command line:
OpenGL ES 3.0 Renderer: Mesa Intel(R) HD Graphics 520 (SKL GT2)
OpenGL ES Batching: ON
/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libasound.so.2: undefined symbol: snd_dlpath
So the drivers are indeed mesa, and it is in fact using my integrated graphics and not my discreet graphics. I downloaded the proprietary drives for my Nvidia card, but when I ran godot again, it was still using the mesa/intel configuration, and I'm not sure of any way to change this.
I again downloaded both of the official 3.3.3 linux binaries (64 and 32, just in case that changed anything) and both gave the same result, although the length of the back trace is not consistent. At this point I'm going to open an issue, as I believe that this is beyond the scope of what I can troubleshoot on my own.