AnimatedSprite won't be able to handle that. From what I've discerned, it was made as a quick way to create simple animations for simple things. Like if you have background props and such. It would be much like making an animated GIF that plays on loop forever and never changes.
It has no special controls for it, other than it's basic parameters.
From what I can tell there aren't any helpers for spritesheets for shader parameters, but you can still use Godot's atlases, so expect a lot of manual work, or having to code something specifically into the shader.
It's up to what works best for you, Godot allows for a variety of approaches.