I'm not exactly sure what you want to achieve so maybe I'll miss the point completely with my comment here, but then again maybe it may help you:
There is a way to place your UI elements by utilizing anchors: https://docs.godotengine.org/en/3.2/getting_started/step_by_step/ui_introduction_to_the_ui_system.html#place-ui-elements-precisely-with-anchors. In "How to change the anchor" section there, they mention Layout menu which, among other options, has "Full Rect" option.
Now, if you place your UI control as a root node in the scene, you can set the UI control's layout to "Full Rect". This will stretch the control to the size of root viewport, which for the main scene is effectively the size of the game window or display, if game is in fullscreen mode.
If game window size (or display size, if in fullscreen mode) changes, your "Full Rect" root UI control will be resized with it. You now add your other UI controls as children of this "Full Rect" root control (of course, there can be only one root for a scene) and manage their positions and sizes relative to the "Full Rect" control (use various UI containers provided by Godot, use Layout menu on these controls as appropriate, etc)