As far as I know vector images can be imported in the format *.svg. They will be rendered into pixels at the time of import though.
There also exist 2D meshes.
I don't do much in 2D but I did just tried to import such a 2D mesh from *.svg.
It works - kind of - but material assignments (=colors) where lost.
Here's how it went:
I imported a relatively simple *.svg into blender. I scaled it up a bit. And rotated it, so that it was in the x/y plane.
Then I exported it to *.obj which I copied into a godot test object.
Then I created a MeshInstance2D and could load that mesh from the *.obj. But the albedo material (although displayed in the Inspector) wasn't used. The result is actually a scalable 2D mesh though.