It's like you said, the Array class does not offer an 'extend' method or something comparable (it does provide '.append' though). You can however concatenate array by simply using the '+' operator, just like in Python.
array1 += [2, 3]
'array1' will now contain the values '2' and '3' at its back. Now this isn't technically the same (I believe) since GDScript will actually create a new Array from the two existing and then set array1 equal to that new one. Python's 'extend' method modifies the first Array directly.
I don't think this will matter though in most cases.